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NSW Curriculum
NSW Education Standards Authority

K–10English K–10 Syllabus

Record of changes
Implementation for K–2 from 2023 and 3–10 from 2024


Stage 2

Creating written texts
Imaginative purposes
  • Create imaginative texts to engage an audience, using first person or third person narrative voice

  • Experiment using second person narrative voice for effect

  • Use an orientation, complication, resolution structure to create narratives centred on time, place and characters

  • Sequence ideas and actions into paragraphs aligned to the stages of the text, to provide elaborated details about settings, character motives and actions

  • Experiment with using and punctuating dialogue in texts

  • Experiment with different poetic forms using stanzas

  • Experiment with poetry to include innovative use of punctuation to suit purpose and for effect

Informative purposes
  • Create informative written texts that include headings, paragraphs beginning with topic sentences, and may conclude information in a final paragraph

  • Create written texts that describe experiences and observations to connect with and inform an audience

  • Create written texts that instruct, that may include a statement of purpose or goal, a list of resources and a series of steps

  • Create written texts that explain how or why something happens through a series of steps, including an opening statement and a conclusion

  • Create written factual and historical accounts that include an introduction with the who, what, when, where and why of an experience or event, a description of a series of events and a conclusion

Persuasive purposes
  • Create written texts that argue a viewpoint using rhetorical devices to persuade an audience

  • Use a structure that includes a statement of position, has sequenced paragraphs and a conclusion

  • Sequence argument points in paragraphs that begin with a topic sentence and support the development of ideas

  • Experiment with modality to modulate an argument for persuasive effect

  • Use facts or opinions to reinforce a viewpoint

Text features for multiple purposes
  • Maintain appropriate, consistent past, present or future tense across a text

  • Maintain noun–pronoun referencing across a text for cohesion

  • Use temporal, conditional and causal conjunctions within sentences, and as connectives to link ideas across sentences for cohesion

  • Maintain correct subject–verb agreement throughout a text

  • Use definite articles for particular things and indefinite articles for general things for cohesion

  • Use language to create imagery or humour, including idioms, puns, simile and personification

  • Select and use multimodal features to add meaning

Sentence-level grammar
  • Use adjectival clauses with noun groups to add information to subjects and objects

  • Use adverbial phrases or clauses to add information to the verb or verb group of the main or other clauses, to provide reasons for or circumstances

  • Use coordinating conjunctions in compound sentences to compare and contrast, or for addition

  • Use subordinating conjunctions in complex sentences to signal sequence, reason or cause and effect

  • Use verb sentence openers to indicate action processes

  • Select and use precise saying, thinking, acting, and relating verbs and verb groups to align with text purposes

  • Create cause-and-effect statements

  • Use declarative sentences to provide facts or state a viewpoint

  • Use imperative sentences to advise, provide instructions, express a request or a command

  • Use exclamatory sentences to emphasise a point or express a strong emotion

  • Use interrogative sentences to ask a direct question, or for rhetorical effect to engage the reader with a viewpoint

  • Use simple, compound and complex sentences of varying lengths for variation and readability

  • Use capital letters to indicate the beginning of a sentence, proper nouns, headings and subheadings, to indicate the beginning of a poetry line, for emphasis, and when using acronyms

  • Use commas between words in a list or to separate adjectives when more than one is used

  • Use a comma to separate a dependent clause before a main clause

  • Use bullet points or numbering to list items or a sequence of steps

  • Use apostrophes for contractions, and to show singular and plural possession

  • Understand and use quoted and reported text or speech in own writing

Word-level language
  • Use topic-specific Tier 2 and Tier 3 vocabulary to demonstrate authority

  • Experiment with words, word order and repetition for rhetorical effect or to create atmosphere

  • Experiment with modality to indicate probability, occurrence, obligation or inclination

  • Use personal pronouns to suit purpose and to connect personally with the audience

  • Use adjectives to develop descriptive features

  • Use synonyms to replace words to avoid repetition and engage the reader

Planning, monitoring and revising
  • Plan structures and language to suit the purpose of a text

  • Research, summarise and list topic-related ideas when planning

  • Create texts by drawing on personal and others’ experiences, and texts read, viewed and listened to for inspiration and ideas

  • Create texts using digital technologies

  • Reflect on and monitor texts according to given criteria, and respond to feedback from others

  • Proofread, revise and edit written texts to refine language, correct spelling and ensure cohesion and engagement for the reader

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