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NSW Curriculum
NSW Education Standards Authority

K–10English K–10 Syllabus

Record of changes
Implementation for K–2 from 2023 and 3–10 from 2024
Expand for detailed implementation advice


Stage 2

Reading comprehension
Reading for interest and wide purposes
  • Identify different purposes and strategies for reading

  • Select and read texts of personal interest and to gather information for learning

  • Build topic knowledge, including key vocabulary, and activate background knowledge prior to and during reading

  • Identify similarities and compare differences within and between texts by making text-to-self, text-to-text and text-to-world connections

  • Locate, select and retrieve relevant information from a print or digital text and consider accuracy of information presented

  • Determine the relevance of a text for a specific purpose

Comprehending text structures and features
  • Identify different structures and features of persuasive, informative and imaginative texts

  • Identify and describe how text structure, features and language work together to achieve a text’s purpose

  • Describe how multimodal features enhance meaning and contribute to salience in texts

  • Understand that dialogue is a common feature of imaginative texts, signalled by quotation marks or speech bubbles to indicate interactions between characters

  • Identify the difference between quoted speech and reported speech

  • Understand that literal information can be sourced directly from a text and that inferences can be made by using multiple sources of information

Comprehending language
  • Use morphemic knowledge to read and understand the meaning of words

  • Adjust own mental model as reading presents new words and understanding

  • Use key words from a text to visualise events, characters and settings when making inferences and confirming predictions

  • Identify the adverbs, nouns and verbs that influence own emotional response to characters

  • Identify different types of verbs that control meaning

  • Identify word patterns, including repetition, that create cohesion or effect

  • Understand that word contractions are a feature of informal language and that apostrophes of contraction are used to signal missing letters

  • Identify different types of connectives used by the author that support inference

  • Use knowledge of homonyms to understand metaphor and to support inference

  • Link the meanings of words and phrases across consecutive sentences to support local inferencing

  • Clarify and link the meanings of key words across a text to support global inferencing

  • Identify and describe the difference between subjective and objective language in texts

  • Understand past, present and future tense and their impact on text meaning

Monitoring comprehension
  • Identify how their background knowledge is used to actively build and adjust a mental model prior to and during reading

  • Identify where meaning breaks down when reading

  • Identify and use strategies to repair reading when meaning breaks down

  • Ask questions to clarify meaning and promote deeper understanding of a text

  • Make gist statements and record them to monitor understanding

  • Use information from paragraphs or chapters to group related ideas and support summarisation of the whole text

  • Reflect on reading experiences and identify texts of personal significance and pleasure

  • Reflect on own understanding of texts and monitor own goals for reading

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