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NSW Curriculum
NSW Education Standards Authority

K–10English K–10 Syllabus

Record of changes
Implementation for K–2 from 2023 and 3–10 from 2024
Expand for detailed implementation advice


Stage 1

Reading comprehension
Activating word meaning
  • Use known vocabulary to build a mental model of the content of a text

  • Use known morphemes and known vocabulary in the text to work out or refine the meaning of unknown words

  • Draw on sources to seek clarification for unknown words

  • Understand vocabulary that signals humorous wordplay in texts

Understanding and connecting sentences
  • Know that a complex sentence includes a clause for expressing a main message and one or more clauses that elaborate on that message

  • Know the meaning and purpose of coordinating and subordinating conjunctions and identify them in a complex sentence

  • Recognise how the position of a clause in a complex sentence influences the important idea for the reader

  • Identify pronouns linked to nouns within and across sentences and/or paragraphs

  • Make an inference by connecting the meaning of words across sentences and/or paragraphs

Understanding whole text
  • Combine multiple sources of information within a text to make meaning

  • Use navigation pathways, including hyperlinks, to extract essential information to support reading fluency and enhance meaning when reading digital texts

  • Identify how creative visual features are used to expand meaning

  • Coordinate information or events from different parts of the text to form an overall opinion

Monitoring comprehension
  • Register a break in comprehension when reading

  • Identify when meaning is not complete and/or contradicts prior understanding

  • Re-read words, phrases or sentences to check and clarify precise meaning

  • Ask a clarifying question when more background knowledge is needed to make an inference

  • Use knowledge of text structure, type of text, author, and forms of writing to predict and confirm meaning

  • Use a mental model to confirm predictions

  • Make text-to-self, text-to-text or text-to-world connections when reading

  • Use visual and/or auditory features in multimodal texts to build meaning

  • Monitor understanding to ensure meaning is sustained and expanded through the whole text

Recalling details
  • Use information read in texts to enhance learning across key learning areas

  • Confirm meaning by sequencing and explaining events and information

  • Recount relevant ideas from texts in the form of a written, visual or oral summary

  • Interpret patterns in texts to enhance understanding

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