11–12Enterprise Computing 11–12 Syllabus
The glossary draws on the NSW syllabus glossaries, the glossaries developed by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, and the Macquarie Dictionary.
Aboriginal Peoples are the first peoples of Australia and are represented by more than 250 language groups, each associated with a particular Country or territory. Torres Strait Islander Peoples are represented by 5 major island groups, and are associated with island territories to the north of Australia’s Cape York which were annexed by Queensland in 1879.
An Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander person is someone who:
- is of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent
- identifies as an Aboriginal person and/or Torres Strait Islander person, and
- is accepted as such by the Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander community(ies) in which they live.
A recognised dialect of English which is the first, or home language, of many Aboriginal people. It differs from other dialects of English, such as Standard Australian English, in systematic ways including sounds, grammar, words and their meanings, and language use. Aboriginal English is a powerful vehicle for the expression of Aboriginal identity. Aboriginal English is not a target language study option for NSW Aboriginal Languages syllabuses.
Texts that describe landscapes and directions of the tracks forged in lands, waters and skies by Creator Spirits during the Dreaming.
The process by which data and programs are defined with a representation similar in form to its meaning while hiding away the implementation details. Abstraction tries to temporarily ignore details so that the programmer can focus on a few concepts at a time. Algorithms must ultimately be broken down into simple instructions for a digital system to execute.
The extent to which a system, environment or object may be used irrespective of a user’s capabilities or abilities. For example, the use of assistive technologies (AT) to allow people with disability to use computer systems, or the use of icons in place of words to allow young children to use a system.
A step-by-step procedure required to solve a problem. Algorithms may be presented in many ways, for example written instructions, flow charts or using a computer programming language.
A software program designed for a specific purpose to run on mobile devices or on a personal computer. An abbreviation of the word ‘application’.
Intelligence demonstrated by machines. Sometimes called machine intelligence.
Assets are the digital elements that can be used or incorporated into a multimedia presentation or production. They include graphics, photographs, videos, audio, animations or other artistic data.
A device or system whose primary purpose is to maintain or improve an individual's functioning and independence to facilitate participation and enhance overall wellbeing. This includes technologies specifically designed to meet an individual's needs, eg eye gaze technology, as well as more general technologies that can be used by anyone, eg speech-to-text applications. Assistive technology can also be referred to as inclusive technology.
An umbrella term that encompasses the communication methods used to supplement or replace speech or writing. AAC can be unaided, such as gestures, body language and sign language, or aided such as pictures, symbols, objects or speech generating devices.
A technology that replicates, enhances or overlays extra information about the real-world environment, using computer-generated data such as global positioning systems (GPS), sound, videos and images. Common examples include a car windshield with a heads-up display (HUD) that projects 3-dimensional navigation information and virtual lanes, or a swimming telecast using a line to indicate the position of the record holder in relation to the actual swimmers in the race.
The process of transforming and manipulating data that does not require user intervention. For example, through the use of formulae in a spreadsheet, new sets of data can be processed and the results recalculated automatically, or a webcam can be turned on as a result of movement sensor input.
A technique used by inference engines that determines reasoning from the knowledge base to understand how a decision was made. In backward chaining, the goal or output is used to track back to establish the steps taken.
Extremely large datasets that may be analysed computationally to reveal patterns, trends and associations.
A term that describes the source of data being human or biological.
A growing list of records, known as blocks, which are linked using cryptography. It can be used to record transactions between 2 parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way.
Ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or information.
Completely Automatic Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart
Make clear or plain.
Arrange or include in classes/categories.
Distributing computing over a network where storage of files, processing of data and/or access to software occurs automatically on interconnected server computers to which the user’s device is connected. The term refers to accessing files, software and services over the internet.
Working with others towards a shared goal, through a variety of modes of communication. This may be achieved using a range of technologies, tools and processes.
The ways people communicate and the communicative behaviours they use. Communication forms can be non-symbolic and/or symbolic. Non-symbolic forms include sounds, gestures, facial expressions and eye movements. Symbolic forms can be aided or non-aided. Aided forms of symbolic communication include objects, symbols, photographs and drawings. Aided forms can be digital. Non-aided forms of symbolic communication include formal gestures; speech; and signs, such as Key Word Sign.
A process in which a problem is analysed and solved so that a human, machine or computer can effectively implement the solution. It involves using strategies to organise data logically, break down problems into parts, interpret patterns and design, and implement algorithms to solve problems.
The protection provided to the creators of original works and makers of sound recordings and films, that offers a legal framework for the control and reproduction or transmission of their literary, dramatic, artistic or musical works.
Country is used to describe a specific area of a nation or clan including physical, linguistic and spiritual features. Aboriginal communities’ cultural associations with their Country may include or relate to languages, cultural practices, knowledge, songs, stories, art, paths, landforms, flora, fauna and minerals. These cultural associations may include custodial relationships with particular landscapes such as land, sea, sky, rivers as well as the intangible places associated with the Dreaming(s). Custodial relationships are extremely important in determining who may have the capacity to authentically speak for their Country.
Place is a space mapped out by physical or intangible boundaries that individuals or groups of Torres Strait Islander Peoples occupy and regard as their own. It is a space with varying degrees of spirituality.
Is a non-profit organisation that enables the sharing of creative content without the need to seek legal approval.
Add a degree or level of accuracy, depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to (analyse/evaluate).
The customs, habits, beliefs/spirituality, social organisation and ways of life that characterise different groups and communities. Cultural characteristics give a group or individual a sense of who they are and help them make sense of the world in which they live. Culture is a shared system but inherently diverse – there can be individual and group differences within cultures. Everyone has culture – it is a lens through which we see the world.
In Aboriginal communities, an individual charged with maintaining and passing on particular elements of cultural significance, eg language, stories, songs, rituals and imagery.
Relating to customs or practices associated with a particular culture, society, place or set of circumstances. Similar to the term 'traditional', 'customary' is used in reference to aspects of Aboriginal cultures in pre-invasion contexts.
A term that refers to behaviour and the precautions that may be exercised when providing personal information in an online or digital environment.
The protection of information technology elements, including hardware and software, data or network services.
When referring to deaf people who belong to a linguistic and cultural minority known as the Deaf community, the 'D' may be capitalised in reference to the individual, the group, or the culture in order to accord respect and deference, for example, the Deaf community. When referring simply to audiological status or when cultural affiliation is not known, as in the case of a person with a hearing loss in general, the lowercase 'd', as in 'deaf' is the more common usage.
A discrete representation of information using number codes. Data may include characters (eg alphabetic letters, numbers and symbols), images, sounds and/or instructions that, when represented by number codes, can be manipulated, stored and communicated by digital systems. For example, characters may be represented using ASCII code or images may be represented by a bitmap of numbers representing each ‘dot’ or pixel.
A reduction in the number of bits needed to represent data.
The practice of analysing a subset of a larger dataset in order to determine meaningful information such as patterns and trends.
This is a global movement that refers to the right of Indigenous Peoples to determine the creation, collection, ownership and application of data that is for and about Indigenous Peoples. The term also refers to transnational data flow and a range of issues arising from the flow of data between nations.
Data types used in computing are expressed as either:
- floating point or real
- date and time
A collection of data organised by records and fields that can be easily stored, accessed, managed and updated.
A collection of data combined for a specific purpose.
A cultural identity for people with hearing loss who share a common culture and who usually have a shared sign language.
A process where a need or opportunity is identified and a design solution is developed. The consideration of economic, environmental and social impacts that result from designed solutions are core to design thinking. Design thinking methods can be used when trying to understand a problem, generate ideas and refine a design based on evaluation and testing.
An acceptance and upholding of the norms of appropriate, responsible behaviour with regard to the use of digital technologies. This involves using digital technologies effectively and not misusing them to disadvantage others. Digital citizenship includes appropriate online etiquette, literacy in how digital technologies work and how to use them, an understanding of ethics and related law, knowing how to stay safe online, and advice on related health and safety issues such as predators and the permanence of data.
Traces of data left behind by a person using a digital system. A person’s digital footprint includes all information actively provided by that person, such as interactions on social networks, online purchases, emails and instant messages. It also includes passive information, such as logs of software installed and used on a computer, metadata associated with files, a user’s internet protocol (IP) address, a device being used to access a webpage, and a user’s browsing history stored as cookies or by internet service providers.
Refers to electronic tools, systems, devices and resources that generate, process or store data, and may include applications, games, microcontrollers, mobile devices, multimedia, networks, robotics.
An umbrella term for any or all of the following components:
- impairments: challenges in body function or structure
- activity limitations: difficulties in executing activities
- participation restrictions: challenges an individual may experience in involvement in life situations. (World Health Organization)
Differences that exist within a group, for example, age, sex, gender, gender expression, sexuality, ethnicity, ability/disability, body shape and composition, culture, religion/spirituality, learning differences, socioeconomic background, values and experiences.
The Dreaming has different meanings for different Aboriginal groups. The Dreaming can be seen as the embodiment of Aboriginal creation which gives meaning to everything; the essence of Aboriginal beliefs about creation and spiritual and physical existence. It establishes the rules governing relationships between the people, the land and all things for Aboriginal Peoples. The Dreaming is linked to the past, the present and the future. Where appropriate, refer to Aboriginal names for the Dreaming.
A computing framework that allows for the distribution of processing capabilities and hardware so that applications can be closer to their data source.
The custodians of knowledge and lore. They are chosen and accepted by their own communities as people who have the permission to disclose cultural knowledge and beliefs. Recognised Elders are highly respected people within Aboriginal communities. Proper consultation with local Aboriginal communities will often direct schools to recognised Elders.
A process in cryptography of encoding (converting) data, using mathematical formulas, into a form that only an intended recipient can decode, often including a personal digital signature.
An activity that produces goods and/or services. Enterprises are run for the benefit of an individual or a group of individuals. They can range in scale from a transnational corporation to home-based economic activities.
Refers to business-oriented information technology that is critical to a company’s operations. Enterprise computing encompasses types of information technology tools that businesses use for resource management, efficient production operations, relationship management and back office support.
The combination of digital systems, people and processes that collect, manage and analyse data.
Make a judgement based on criteria; determine the value of.
Is the software that is installed on a small chip in almost all hardware devices that makes the hardware function as the manufacturer intended it to.
The first language(s) that a person learns to speak.
A technique used by inference engines that applies reasoning to the knowledge base to get the information to make a decision. In forward chaining, the inference engine evaluates existing data to develop new data to make a decision.
A term used in programming to describe a self-contained sequence of instructions that performs a specific task or tasks and is designed to be able to be reused throughout the program. Functions often accept some kind of input, perform some process on that input, and return a result that can be used by other parts of a program. Most programming languages allow for user-defined functions, but will also provide pre-defined functions.
The adjustment of a task using digital technologies into a computer game in an attempt to make it more appealing.
Refers to the sense of touch. Often used to describe a method of output from a device that can be measured by feel or touch.
The collection of physical components that constitute a computer system, all of which are tangible objects. Hardware includes both internal and external components of the system, as well as any peripheral devices that can be connected.
An internationally recognised term for the first peoples of a land. In NSW the term Aboriginal person/Peoples is preferred.
Includes, but is not limited to, objects, sites, cultural knowledge, cultural expression and the arts, that have been transmitted or continue to be transmitted through generations as belonging to a particular Indigenous group or Indigenous people as a whole or their territory.
The science of processing data for storage and retrieval.
The presentation of data in a manner that is readily understood.
The combination of digital systems, people and processes that collect, manage and analyse data.
Non-material assets such as forms of cultural expression that belong to a particular individual or community. Intellectual property rights refer to the rights that the law grants to individuals for the protection of creative, intellectual, scientific and industrial activity, such as inventions.
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A collective term for enterprise-based information systems that have the capacity to gather and/or analyse data and communicate with other systems, learn and produce targeted output to respond to the world around them.
Where there is facility for a user to interact with multimedia, the term ‘interactive media’ may be used. The use of digital technologies to present combinations of text, graphics, video, animation and/or sound in an integrated way. Examples include interactive games, media-rich websites and electronic books (e-books).
The internet of me (IoMe) loosely refers to technology which connects our minds and bodies with the online world. It transforms our biological and cognitive life into streams of data which can be monitored, shared and shaped.
Internet of Things (IoT) encompasses smart devices and smart objects that send and receive information using the internet and communication infrastructure.
A communication strategy that incorporates signing with speech. It is used to support language development for people with communication difficulties. Although Key Word Sign uses a simplified form of manual signing, it is different to Auslan, as it is not a signed language.
A key aspect of Aboriginal cultures and values. It includes the importance of all relationships and of being related to and belonging to the land.
An Aboriginal community identified with a common language, both verbal and nonverbal, and with a particular territory. Used in preference to the term ‘tribe’.
The process and range of strategies for increasing knowledge and use of a language that is no longer spoken fluently across all generations in the context of language loss or language dispossession caused by colonisation. Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander Languages are being revived through community initiatives, linguistic research and school programs. ‘Language revival’ may be used as an overarching term that could also include ‘reclamation’, ‘revitalisation’, ’renewal’ and ‘reawakening’.
A local Aboriginal community is constituted by those people who are Aboriginal and who reside in the near locality. Aboriginal communities will have a rich and diverse history that has been seriously affected by dispossession and relations, which sees families with spiritual connection to Country residing beside those who have been forced to move from other locations. The notion of locality is complex and multilayered: schools should seek advice from a range of people and/or organisations representing local interests.
A type of compression algorithm that retains sufficient information to allow the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data. It is used when it is important for the original data to be accurately preserved, for example, in text documents, programming source code, application files or for archival purposes.
A type of compression algorithm that compresses data by discarding information that is not necessary to reproduce the original data with sufficient detail for the user not to notice the difference. It is used primarily for reducing the size of multimedia assets such as video, audio and photographs, especially when streaming or transmitting the data over the internet.
Malicious software designed to interfere with the regular operation of a computer system. Often used to gain access to computers, it is usually hidden in other software to avoid user detection.
A set of data that describes and gives information about other data. For example, the metadata of a photograph is the set of data providing information about copyright.
A small computer built for the purpose of dealing with specific tasks, such as managing the engine in a car, displaying information in a microwave control panel or receiving information from a television remote control. Microcontrollers process data inputted by users (eg keypad) or sensors (eg light).
A mathematical, conceptual or physical representation that describes, simplifies, clarifies or provides an explanation of the structure, workings or relationships within an object, system or idea. Models can provide a means of testing and predicting behaviour within limited conditions. Models may be physical or exist in digital form.
A paradigm based on the concept of ‘objects’ that can contain data and code in the form of procedures. OOP language is a language based on the principles of ‘C’.
A technique used in object-oriented programming to query and manipulate data from a database.
Taking place away from Aboriginal land or Country of origin.
Taking place on Aboriginal land or Country of origin.
This conceptual model standardises communications between all of the elements within an information or computer system.
Each Aboriginal Language is recognised as belonging to a particular geographical area and thus to the people who can claim a connection to that area. Aboriginal community members acquire ownership of their language(s) at birth. Language proficiency is not essential for ownership.
Actively realising (making) designed solutions, using appropriate resources and means of production.
The tangible end results of natural, human, mechanical, manufacturing, electronic or digital production and processes.
An individual or collaborative problem-solving activity undertaken by students that is planned to achieve an articulated aim.
The process of planning, organising, controlling resources, monitoring timelines and activities, and completing a project to achieve a goal that meets identified criteria.
The appropriate ways of behaving, communicating and showing respect for diversity of history and culture. This involves appreciation of the knowledge, standing and status of people within the local Aboriginal community and the school community. Protocols inevitably vary between communities, and between people within a community. In establishing a partnership between schools and Aboriginal communities, it is especially important that protocols are acknowledged and respected.
A set of generally accepted standards or 'rules' that govern relationships and interactions between and within information systems. In communication systems including the internet, specific protocols allow for the successful transmission of data.
A trial product or model built to test an idea or process to inform further design development. Its purpose is to see if and how well the design works and is tested by users and systems analysts. A prototype can be both a physical object or exist in digital form.
A term used commonly in NSW Aboriginal communities to refer to the way an individual treats others. Showing respect occurs in many ways, such as waiting to speak, listening and demonstrating understanding, not asking too many direct questions, ensuring that people are not made to feel uncomfortable or uneasy, and generally showing regard for others’ ideas, beliefs and culture.
A virtual world where players can build their playscapes, invite other players to play and test game play.
A device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment.
Hand signs (or hand talk) used to supplement or replace oral language. Signs form part of nonverbal communication for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples and may be used by people who are hearing, or d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Sign Languages may be used in some areas. Some Sign Languages may be associated with sacred ceremonial practices.
The use of words, graphic designs and/or symbols used to communicate a message, eg information signs, plaques, warning signs, road signs, signs that show direction.
Data with a high degree of organisation, such that it can easily be analysed and processed using algorithms. The organisation of the data takes on a form that captures the properties and behaviours of the source the data represents.
Specialist programming language used to manage data and access data in relational database management systems.
A type of assistive technology that enables people with cognitive and/or physical disability to access a range of devices, including computers and communication devices. Switches can be activated by touch, or triggered without contact, such as through eye gaze, sound or blowing.
The implementation method applied when introducing a new or redesigned enterprise system. Typically methods include: direct, parallel, phased or pilot.
An understanding of how related objects or components interact to influence how systems function. Students are provided with opportunities to recognise the connectedness of, and interactions between phenomena, people, places and events in local and wider contexts and consider the impact of their decisions. Understanding the complexity of systems and the interdependence of components is important for scientific research and for the creation of solutions to technical, economic and social issues.
An individual or group that poses a security threat to an individual or organisation.
The means through which data is sent from one system to another on a network.
The usability, ease of use, and enjoyment provided in the interaction between the customer and the product.
The means by which users interact with computer hardware or software. In software, this usually comprises fields for text and number entry, mouse pointers, buttons and other graphical elements. In hardware, switches, dials and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) provide information about the interactions between a user and a machine.
The use of computing technology to create a simulated environment. Unlike traditional user interfaces, VR places the user inside an experience. Instead of viewing a screen in front of them, users are immersed and able to interact with 3-dimensional worlds.
The presentation of data or information through pictures or graphics to help the intended audience understand its significance.
A sequence of processes and/or activities that a document or artefact transitions through in order to reach completion.
Yarning circles are an important cultural practice for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples to learn within the collective group. Knowledge and information are shared in harmony and respect with all individuals.